Kidney and Bladder Stones

Stones are more common among people with certain disorders (for example, hyperparathyroidism, dehydration, and renal tubular acidosis) and among people whose diet is very high in animal-source protein or vitamin C or who do not consume enough water or calcium. People who have a family history of stone formation are more likely to have calcium stones and to have them more often. People who have undergone surgery for weight loss (bariatric surgery) may also be at increased risk of stone formation. Stones, especially tiny ones, may not cause any symptoms. Stones in the bladder may cause pain in the lower abdomen. Stones that obstruct the ureter or renal pelvis or any of the kidney’s drainage tubes may cause back pain or renal colic. Renal colic is characterized by an excruciating intermittent pain, usually in the area between the ribs and hip that spreads across the abdomen and often extends to the genital area. The pain tends to come in waves, gradually increasing to peak intensity, then fading, over about 20 to 60 minutes. The pain may radiate down the abdomen toward the groin or testis or vulva.

  • Calcium phosphate stones
  • Inhibitors of stone formation
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy
  • Inhibitors of stone formation

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